In Firefox 47, without any addons or tweaks, when you de-select “allow pages to choose their own fonts”, the icons on the sidebar are broken.
Some non-sidebar icons, like Github and Bitbucket ones, seems to be unaffected, even when they are made using fonts too.
There is a related discussion at https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=789788 and it’s marked as fixed - as far as I understand, the icons that are done with characters from Unicode Private Use Area are all right:
Firefox default fonts are used but webfonts are allowed when
they contain characters not covered by the users default fonts (like icons)
(Comment 143 in that discussion)