GLIBC_2.29 error when not using cached docker image

Starting on Nov 8th, our builds which compile assets for a Rails project started sporadically failing with this error:

LoadError: /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ version `GLIBC_2.29' not found

No code changes were done on our end. The only thing we can point to for the failures is that it looks like if the cached docker image is not found, it will download it and then we get the error. So if we see this message, it will error:
image cache not found on this host, downloading circleci/ruby:2.6.3-stretch-node-browsers

On builds where the cached docker image is found, it seems to work. However, we confirmed that the SHA of both the cached image and the newly downloaded image are the same!

Any ideas? Again, this only started on Nov 8, 2021.