Just confirming my understanding - if you’re only looking to pass data between jobs in a workflow, you should use
workspaces which will work across different jobs and images (I do that often).
Artifacts are intended to be exposed as the final output of workflows, and I can’t say if there would be an issue based on the images used.
https://circleci.com/blog/persisting-data-in-workflows-when-to-use-caching-artifacts-and-workspaces/ is a great blog post that discusses when to use artifacts, caches or workflows.
https://circleci.com/docs/2.0/concepts/#workspaces-and-artifacts is a basic comparison of the two.
Hope that helps, please let me know if I misunderstood anything!